Governors are also known as speed limiters; they are used in different places like engines to measure and regulate the speed of an engine.
Types of governors
There are two types of governors namely:
- Centrifugal governors
- Inertia governors
Centrifugal governors :
Centrifugal governors are used to balancing the rotating balls by using the centrifugal force. Two balls with equal mass are attached to the arms, they are called as fly balls or governor balls. With the help of spindle, balls rotate and the engine is driven by the bevel gear. To the spindle upper end arms are joined, when the balls are revolving about the vertical axis they move up and down.
While the spindle is revolving simultaneously the sleeve is also revolving along with the spindle. The sleeve can be moved smoothly up and down. When the spindle speeds increases in then the balls and the sleeve rise, and fall when the spindle speed decreases. While Sleeves moving up and down directions at that case if there is no need of the sleeve working ‘S’ is provided to stop the spindle. Sleeve arrangement is connected to the bell crank lever followed by the throttle valve. When the load on the engine increases then automatically speeds of the governor decreases. The decrease in the governor speed result in the decrease of the centrifugal force on the balls. Working fluid supply is also decreased when the sleeve increases and increased when it is decreased. When the sleeve is moving in the upward direction at that time supply of the working fluid is decrease in that stage speed is also decreased and power output must be reduced.Advertisement:
Centrifugal governors are mainly divided in two types they are
- Pendulum type
- Loaded type
The Pendulum governor consists of watt governor
Balls are arranged on the two arms and the upper arm is connected to the spindle and lower arm is connected to the sleeve. Watt governor is used in the steam engine by James watt. With the help of the output shaft the spindle is driven.
The Loaded type governors are mainly divided in to two types they are
- Dead weight governor
- Spring controlled governor
The Dead weight governors are divided in to two types they are
- Porter governor
- Proell governor
In porter governor dead weights are placed on the sleeves and balls are attached on the hinge.
The spring controlled governors are also divided in to four types they are
- Hartnell governor
- Hartnung governor
- Wilson Hartnell governor
- Pickering governor
A Hartnell governor is also known as spring loaded governor. Two bell crank levers joints are arranged on the frame. To the governor spindle a frame is attached and then made to rotate with it. At the end of the vertical arm lever carries a ball to the horizontal arm roller is added. The compression spring provides equal level downward forces on the two rollers through a ring on the sleeve. There is an arrangement of adjusting screws on the sleeve.
Stiffness of the spring is equated as:
Compare with the other governors inertia governors works on the different principle. The balls are arranged in way such that inertia forces are caused due to angular retardation or acceleration of the governor shaft to change their position. With the help of the springs the displacement of the balls are calculated and controlled .By using the governor mechanism the energy supply to the engine is calculated .The position of the balls are exaggerated by the rate of revolution of the speed of the shaft. Centrifugal governors are commonly used model.
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