Pressure regulator is a mechanical device, which does not require any external source. It acts as a valve, at certain pressures and is used to break the flow of liquid or gas automatically.
- Mainly the regulators are used to allow the fluids with high pressure supply to the tanks and lines. This is used to reduce the pressure safety and various other applications for working pressures.
- The pressure regulator acts a valve, sensor and controller unit. Basically regulator is available at low cost installation where the maintenance is also done at ease.
- When the gas is filled in the container or cylinder for proper discharge of the gas, the pressure regulators are use at that level.
- By using the regulator one can control both the liquid and non-liquid state gases.
- Based on the range of the pressure, accuracy, quality, design, material constructions, and flow rate the regulators are selected.
- Mainly the gas pressure regulators are used to control the gas pressure. But these are not used for the flow rate measures.
- Rotometers, flow meters, mass flow controllers are mainly used to regulate the gas flow rates with utmost accurately.
Operation of the pressure regulators
The flow of the gases and to regularize the demand of the gas flow in to the system, the primary regulatory function is to be matched. The pressure flow decreases with decrease in the load flow. If the flow of the load is increases, then the device flow must be increased to stop the organized pressure from decreasing. This can happen due to storage of gases in the pressure system.
The Pressure regulator system consists of loading element, measuring element and restricting element.
- The loading element is a part that applies force on the restricting element. The load can be provided with the help of a piston actuator, a spring, a weight, diaphragm actuator mixed with a spring.
- The measuring element is used to determine the fluid flow which states, the inlet flow must be equal to the flow of outlet.
- The diaphragm is used to measure the flow and it can serve as a joint element.
- The restricted elements act as a valve and help the liquid flow. They are butterfly valve, globe valve and poppet valve etc.
There are two types of regulator, they are
Single stage regulator
Double stage regulator
Single stage regulator
In the single stage regulator, through the inlet valve the high pressure gas is entered into the regulator.
With the help of the needle valve the entered gas must be controlled. When the pressure is raised, at that condition the diaphragm is pushed towards the inlet valve. Valve must be closed to which it is attached, which prevents the regulator from entering the gas, to the pressure gauge outlet side is attached.
If the gas present inside the regulator falls below the actual limit, then the gas is drawn outside the cylinder. The spring pushes the diaphragm and then the valve open. Till the equilibrium reaches between the spring and the outlet pressure the gas is be supplied. The outlet pressure must be depending on the force of the spring. The spring must be adjusted with the help of knob or handle, where single stage regulators are use with cylinders and pipe lines
Double stage regulator:
The double stage regulator is also used to regulate the pressure, instead of using one stage regulator.
Initially the first stage is pre-set, as it reduces the pressure supply of the gas to an intermediate stage. Later, from the intermediate stage the gas passes into the second stage. The control knob which is attached to the diaphragm is used to adjust the gas to the working pressure. The two stage regulator has two safety valves, so the excess pressure is sent outside the valves to avoid explosion. To the single stage regulator there is a regular torque adjustment. If the given pressure falls below the minimum level, the process outlet pressure must be increases, so that the torque adjustment can be done if required. But in the two stage regulator we can see the involuntary reparation of the drop in the stream pressure. The two stage regulators are used with manifolds and cylinders.
Applications of pressure regulator
The pressure regulators are used in the oil and gas industry, breathable air supply, mining industry, recreational vehicle,
LP gas/propane gas, gas powered vehicles, oxy fuel cutting and welding, cooking, pressure reduction in water and Air compressors.
In the underground mining operation industries in relation to the depth the pressure builds rapidly. So, to reduce the pressure it requires water system. During the process it releases high pressure, where the arrangement must be installed at a certain distance, which is nearly 180m. With the high pressures the valve, pipes can burst easily.
Breathable air supply
Pressure regulators are arranged to the air tank. The tank may contain a pressure of 2000PSI, if the pressure exceeds the limit it causes the fatal barotrauma injury. At the ambient pressure, the regulator allows only the sustained flow of air.
A pressure regulator is need in the recreational vehicle with water system. The basic water must have a huge pressure level. If the water flows from the tank, at that instance the water must have high amount of pressure level, when compared with the ground water level. Mainly the water pressure depends on how far they are coming from. If there is no pressure regulator, at that instance one can observe the damage of the pipe lines, joints and causes floods. Pressure regulators are used to supply water; camper is connected to the tube with the help of small screw on fixtures.
LP gas / propane gas
Regulators are used for the supply of gases. Propane tank consists of pressure, as it can fluctuate significantly. Regulator is used to deliver study flow pressure gas to next purposes. Normally the pressure ranges between the 30 to 200 PSI, and it delivers normally 11inches water column for residential applications, and for the industries 35inches of water column is delivered. Propane regulators are differing in shape and size, where the delivery pressure must be adjustable. At that time of pressure delivery at the outlet, should maintain a uniform level for next requirement. In all the regulators the outlet pressure must be lower than the inlet pressure.
Gas powered vehicles
In the fuel cell electrical power train or the internal combustion engine do not require what type of the motor needs to be used, but a specified pressure regulator is needed to bring the stored gas. The stored gas pressure must be from 20, 35, 50 and 70 MPa operational requirements in all safety operating pressures.
Oxy fuel cutting and welding
Oxy fuel cutting and welding require gases at particular pressures. For the material where the welding and cutting of the storage cylinders are not possible, in such situations the pressure regulator will be used to reduce the high pressures. There are two types of the Oxy gas regulators they are
- At constant rates the regulators release the gas from the cylinder. When the gas is released outside, in such situations the pressure in the cylinder turns out to be less.
- From the intermediate to low pressure, the pressure reduction is controlled by the regulator. Two pressure gauges are arranged to the valve assembly. One gauge is used for indicating the cylinder pressure, and the other is used for indicating the hose pressure.
To prevent the explosion for safety purpose, there is an arrange for pressure relief valve, and pressure regulator valve to the pressure cookers. In any case the pressure regulator valve fails in that particular stage, one can observe the pressure released outside. In olden days there is no presence of the safety release valve. Mainly the home need models maintain a low pressure and high pressure settings. Usually they have a fixed setting in the range of 7 to 15 PSI. A simple single stage pressure regulator is used in the home cooking units. In the olden days, a small weight is placed at the top of an opening, which allows the excess pressure to be pushed outside. Now a day, the equipment is fixed with the spring loaded valve to lift and discharges the excess pressure outside when the vessel rises. On the pressure regulator valve there is an arrangement of quick releasing pressure, lower the spring tension it allows the pressure to outside with safe.
Pressure reduction in water
By using the application of fluctuating pressures, industrial areas, and in remote locations water must be entered. To avoid damage to the piece of equipment, pressure regulator is needed to keep the pressure range, and also to avoid accidents that are involved in the pipes. Proper pressure maintenance is required to avoid the accidents plus to reduce the damages. For high error tolerances single stage regulator is sufficient.
Mainly the air compressors are used in industries, work shop areas to perform a variety of jobs including cleaning, running of air powered tools and expanding things like balls, tires etc.
The compressor regulator is arranged to regulate the pressure by the handler, when the pressure exceeds. In many cases the compressed gas is used to supply for multiple purposes, in such situations many regulators are arranged to send the suitable pressure. For compressed gas few air tools are arranged.
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