Gauge is a device used to measure and also show certain facts like time, content of something, amount; it also gives the visual display. Variety range of tools are present which helps in such functions ranging from basic pieces of materials against which sizes can be restrained to difficult pieces of machinery.
The gauge can be defined as “a service used to measure a physical quality”.
Mainly the gauge is used to measure the space present in between the gaps, defining the thickness, measure diameter of a materials and the flow pressure of a liquid.
The measured units are displayed on the monitored system with the help of pointers and needles that moves along a calibrated scale.Advertisement:
Basic Gauge Types :
The gauges are basically divided into four types they are
- Analogue instrument meter with analogue display
- Digital instrument meter with analogue display
- Analogue instrument meter with digital display
- Digital instrument meter with digital display
Analogue instrument meter with analogue display
It is a basic type of model used until the later periods
Digital instrument meter with analogue display
It consists of a screen which shows an analogue meter. These types of instruments are used in the aircraft cockpits and hospital equipment’s etc.
Analogue instrument meter with digital display
It consists of a number display where the numbers are shown on the display unit.Advertisement:
Digital instrument meter with digital display
Numbers are displayed with the help of the electro mechanical display or mechanical display. We can see these types in clocks, Doppler meters, and informational screens plus also in airports etc.
The first two basic types are easier for the human brain and eye to interpret. Simultaneously, the instrument meters must be read. The remaining two are used only for displaying digits, they are more complex for individuals to read and understand. For example we can see the cockpit instrument in the aircraft. The figures cannot be displayed in the flight instrument. All instruments are displayed in the glass cockpits in which some figures are visible. In its place the screens display analogue meters are used.
Different types of gauges are there. Some of them are
- Bore gauge
- Centre gauge
- Fish tail gauge
- Comb type gauge
- Dial indicator
- Feeler gauge
- Gauge block
- Go and no go gauge
- Grind gauge
- Load cell
- Linear variable differential transformer
- Micro meter
- Pressure gauge
- Profile gauge
- Radius gauge
- Ring gauge
- Strain gauge
- Stream gauge
- Temperature gauge
- Thread pitch gauge
- Tide gauge
- Vernier height gauge
- Wire gauge
A bore gauges is device used to measure the holes accurately
Bore gauge are divided into several types they are:
- Three Point Bore Gauge
- Three Point Triga Bore Gauge
- Three point true bore gauge
- Two point Electronic plug gauge
- Three point bore gauge calibration system
- Force gauge stand
- Dial bore gauge
Three Point Bore Gauge
A Three point bore gauge is used to measure the interior diameter of an object.
Three Point Triga Bore Gauge
A Three Point Triga Bore Gauge is used in the application of vertical gauging.
The main features of the Three Point Triga Bore Gauge is
- It has the capability of measuring high ranges
- The gauges are supplied with the fixed anvils.
- It eliminates the operator errors which are occurred at the time of process.
- The unique system requires 2 handles to billet the entire 24 heads.
- For increased gauging depth extension is available
- In the process it can achieved high accuracy without help of any external person.
- It is suitable to simple and integrated measurements.
Two Point Electronic Plug Gauge:
A Two point electronic plug gauge is also used to measure the interior diameters of the object. By using the self-centring system it provides easy and high accurate measurements of the interior dimensions.
The main features of the Two Point Electronic Plug Gauge is
- Guide bush ensures self-centring of plug in bore
- To check the roundness errors it is rotated around the bore
- The head is slide axial to check the barrelling, taper or bell mounting
- In elliptical bores the two point ball contacts are ideal to the gauge errors.
- For tri boring three point measuring head is required
- The measuring must be ranges from 0.1 to 1.0 mm
- Repeatability must be possible up to 0.001 mm
- For safety purpose handle is insulated
Three point bore gauge calibration system
A three point bore gauge calibration system is an advanced explanation to the problems that are occurred in the micrometer and three points bore gauge. This is used to measure the accurate calibration.
Force gauge stand
A force gauge stand is used to measure the force of an object.
Dial bore gauge:
A dial bore gauge or Vernier bore gauge is used to measure a bore directly. The gauge consists of 3 symmetrical anvils that are projected by the gauge body. The gauge body are connected to the micrometre or dial mechanism. With respect to the dimensions the knob is rotated and it moves the anvils in or out side. The knob frequently has a sliding mechanism. This is to take the texture out of the device and it increases the reliability between measurements.
A Caliper gauge is a device used to measure the space stuck between two disparate edges of an object. It consists of a simple compass with outward and inward facing points. The tips are adjusted to points which are to be measured. By using the ruler the distance between the fixed points are measured and then the caliper is removed. Mainly the caliper is used in the labs of Mechanical Engineering, wood working, medicine, metal working, science and some other industries.
The caliper are divided in to 8 types they are
- Inside caliper
- Outside caliper
- Divider caliper
- Oddleg caliper
- Vernier caliper
- Dial caliper
- Digital caliper
- Micrometer caliper
The main objective of the inside caliper is used to measure the interior size of an article.
The upper caliper requires some adjustments manually prior to the fitting. Acceptable location of this caliper is positioned by tapping the caliper legs informally on the surface. Here the caliper passes over the objects. A light impulse against the resistance of the middle pivot screw later spreads the legs to the accurate dimension and delivers the required consistent feel that confirms a repeatable measurement. The lower caliper contains of modifying screws that permit it to be wisely adjusted without deducting the tool from the work piece.
The outside caliper is used to measure the exterior size of an article. Few applications are applied inside caliper, out of which same are applied outside the calliper. Considering the limitations and usage conditions some changes are done to obtain an accuracy and repeatability. To measure the large pipe diameters these calipers are used. The Vernier caliper does not have the penetration capacity to overlap this large diameter at the same time, where it reaches the outmost points of the pipe diameter. Mostly they are made up of high carbon steels.
Mostly the divider caliper is used in the metalworking sector which is known as the compass. The divider caliper is used to mark the outer locations at the time of process. Due to the sharp contact, the point acts as scribers. One end of the compass is fixed at the centre and the other end is turned, so it draws lines on the work piece material. During the time of process arc is formed.
On the map divider caliper is used to measure the distance present in between the points. By using the scale the distance should be converted into the actual distance. In some situation the divider caliper is also used medical field.
The Oddleg caliper is also known as Oddleg Jennys or hermaphrodite caliper. This type of caliper is used to find space from the end of the work piece. The fixed leg is used to run along with the work piece edge while the scriber makes its mark at a programmed distance; this guarantees a line parallel to the edge.
By using the Vernier calipers we get high accuracy and good result. We can see the measured distance directly on the Vernier calipers. By using different ways we can find the result. To the Vernier calipers it consists of a calibrated scale with the fixed jaw. And also it consists of another jaw with a pointer. The pointer must be slides along with the scale.
By using 3 ways the readings are taken. They are
On the scale by reading the indicator position we receive the results.
If the pointer is placed between the two markings then we get the answer by interpolation of the values.
Vernier calipers are used to measure the internal and external dimensions of object. In the Vernier calipers scale it includes the metric measurements located on the upper part. Most properly the Vernier calipers are used in industries to note the readings very accurately.
By using the dial caliper we can read the results very accurately. The readings are in millimetres or in inches. The dial caliper is a small instrument and it consists of rack and pinion drives. A pointer is placed in the dial caliper on circular dial. The pointer shows the readings of the measured object. For every 1 millimetre or inch the pointer rotates. The dial caliper slide must be locked by using the small lever or with the help of a screw. So it allows checking the part sizes simply using go and no go.
By using this digital caliper we can read the readings in a single valve. The digital caliper consists of a linear encoder. So they are switched in between millimetres or centimetres or inches.
Instructions followed to use the digital caliper:
Before using the digital caliper user needs to clean the surface with soft cloth. Keep the digital caliper clean and also dry. On digital caliper never put on any electrical voltage on it. Do not scratch the caliper with electrical point pen. Eliminate the battery if the caliper is not used for prolong period.
For measurement calibrated screw is used in the caliper rather than a slide is called a micrometer caliper.
Centre gauge and Fish tail gauge
The centre gauge and fish tail gauges are mainly used in the lathe works. In lathe works they used the centre gauge to check the angles when grinding the outline of centres and single point screw cutting tool bit. Most properly the gauges are used during the time of hard grinding threading tool bits on a bench grinder. For this they use the tool and the cutter grinders. The tool bit has been grounded to the accurate angle, and then they are used to set the instrument perpendicular to the work piece.
Comb type gauge
Comb type gauge is a ruler shaped gauge with 2 supports at each of its 6 sides and also having tabs to varying lengths. To take the measurements the comb gauge must be forced perpendicular into the film using the measuring range that agrees to the expected film thickness. The thickness of the wet film will fall in between the allowance of the shortest tab that is wet and the gap of the next shortest dry tab.
The dial indicator is also known as dial test indicator, probe indicator or dial gauge. The dial indicator is used to measure the small linear distance present in the objects or work piece.
The feeler gauges are used to measure the gap widths. Mainly these gauges are used in the field of engineering. In engineering it is used to measure the gap present in between them.
They consist of no., of small distances of steel of dissimilar thickness with the measurements marked on the work piece. All are on the same hinge they are flexible enough and several can be loaded together to gauge intermediate valves. Commonly they have two sets of units they are metric and imperial units used for the measurements.
Instead of flat blades, a similar device with wires of specific diameter is used to setup the gap in the spark plug to the accurate size. So the gap must be done by growing or reducing the gap till the gauge of the accurate size just fits inside the gap. Sometimes the length of the steel is called as blades or leaves. The blades are not having the sharp edge.
In the feeler gauge we can one type it is
Taper feeler gauge:
We can see that the tapered shape of the feeler as opposed to parallel shape. The thicknesses of the blades are constant. The gauges are used in similar ways.
Gauge block is also known as slip gauge, gage blocks, Jo blocks, or Johansson gauge. A gauge block is a system for creating accuracy lengths. The individual gauge blocks are in ceramic or metal blocks. We can see the gauge blocks only in standard lengths. The blocks are loaded to make up a preferred length. With very little dimensional improbability the blocks are to be joined together, by using the sliding process where the blocks are joined this is known as wringing. Then the surface is grip together. A small no., of gauge blocks can be used to create an accurate length within a range.
The gauged pins are also related to the gauge blocks. They are precision ground cylindrical bars to use as plug gauge to measure the hole diameters.
Go and no go gauge
The go and no go gauges are referred to an inspection tool. This tool is used to check the work piece material against its allowable tolerances. If the check work piece is in GO state then it is said to be acceptable. If the work piece is in NO GO stage at that case the work piece is considered to be in a failure state. Mainly the Go and No Go gauges are used in the manufacturing industry to check the quality of the product.
We can see different types of gauges in this they are
- Plug gauge
- Snap gauge
The gauges are referred to a plug gauge; they are used in the manner of a plug. Generally they are accumulated from the regular parts where the gauge potion is exchangeable with the other gauge piece. To hold the gauge firmly the body uses the collet principle. To use this type of gauge one end is inserted in to the first part. Depends up on the result the other end must be tried on.
During the time of large quantity of work pieces this type of inspection is used. The snap gauge consists of four jaws or anvils. The first pairs are used to set the upper limit of the part and the inner set is adjusted to the lower limit of the part.
Initially the machined part will pass through the first set of the anvils and they stop at the second end of the test. In this way a part may be tested in one action, dissimilar the plug gauge that wants to be used twice and overturned to access the second gauge.
The grind gauge is used to indicate the presence of course or fineness of grind particle and accumulation in dispersion. Many of the solid materials must be ground in order to be dispersed in liquids. Based up on the size of the individual particles the resulting properties of the dispersion vary.
Applications of grind gauge:
Grind gauges are used in various fields like pigment, paint, plastic, and food, pharmaceutical and in many other fields aswell. And it is also used in storage, utilized to produce and also in dispersion products.
Usage of the grind gauge:
In the deeper groove excess of material is placed at the maximum. The rating of the material is determined by the point where oversize elements start to appear in high density.
The load cell transducer is used to convert a force into the electrical signal. It is an indirect conversion and it happens in two stages.
Various types of load cells are present they are
Strain gauge load cell
Pneumatic load cell
Hydraulic load cell
Piezo electrical cell
Vibrating wire load cell
Capacitive load cell
Strain gauge load cell
With help of the mechanical arrangement the force exist sensed distorts a strain gauge. So the strain gauge converts the strain deformation into the electrical signal. The load cell consist of 4 strain gauges in Wheatstone bridge formation. Load cell of Quarter Bridge and half bridge are also available. The quarter bridge is known as one strain gauge. The half bridge is known as two strain gauge. The electrical signal output is normally in order of limit millivolts. It requires amplification by using an instrumental amplifier earlier it can be used. So the output of the transducer must be plugged in to the algorithm. By using the algorithm the forces which are applied to the transducer must be calculated.
Strain gauges load cells are commonly used in the industry. The strain gauge load cells are stiff and they have good resonance value. The strain gauge load cells works on the principle of strain gauge. The strain gauge cell must be deforms when the material used in the load cell deforms properly.
These values are very small and relational to the strain or stress that the material load cell is undertaking at the time. The modification in resistance of the strain gauge offers an electrical value variation that is adjusted to the load placed on the load cell.
We know that in the strain gauge load cell transforms the load acting into the electrical signals. When the weight is applied on the gauge then it undergoes deformation. Four strain gauges are mostly used to obtain temperature compensation and maximum sensitivity. In tension, two gauges are used and the remaining two are used in compression. They are wired with the compensation adjustments. When we applied the weights on the strain gauge then the strain changes the electrical resistance into the load. Other load cells are disappearing into incomprehensibility. The strain gauge load cells remain to increase their correctness and lower their component costs.
Pneumatic load cell
For automatic regulation and to balance the pressure the load cells are designed. Here to the one end of the diaphragm air pressure is applied. The entered air comes out through the nozzle. The nozzle must be placed at the bottom of the load cell. To the load cell pressure gauge is attached to measure the pressure present inside the cell. The deflection of the diaphragm disturbs the airflow over the nozzle and also the pressure inside the chamber.
Hydraulic load cell
The hydraulic load cell use conventional piston and also cylinder arrangement. Here the piston is placed in a thin elastic diaphragm. There is no contact between the piston and the load cell. Mechanical breaks are arranged to stop over strain of the diaphragm when the loads exceed the limit. The cell must be completely filled with the oil. When the load was applied on the cell then there is a movement in the piston and also in the diaphragm. Due to the load the oil pressure must be increased and as it produces a change in the pressure. The pressure change in the Bourdon tube must be connected to the load cell. The sensors present in the cell have no electrical components and it is ideal to use in the dangerous areas. In the hydraulic load cell it includes the bin, hopper weighing and result tank. The hydraulic load cells are more effective in the outdoor surroundings.
Piezo electrical cell
The piezo electric cell also works on the principle of deformation strain gauge load cell deformation. By using basic piezoelectric material the voltage is generated and it is proportional to the deformation of the load cell. It is used for the dynamic measurement of the force. The applications for piezo-based load cells are in the dynamic packing situations. The strain gauge load cells can fail with high dynamic loading cycles.
Vibrating wire load cell
The vibrating wire load cell is used in the application of the geomechanical because of low amount of drift.
Capacitive load cell
In the capacitive load cell the capacitance of a capacitor changes as the load presses the two plates of a capacitor near together.
The load cells are mainly used in the measuring instrument known as universal testing machine.
Linear variable differential transformer
It is also called as liner variable displacement transducer or differential transformer. It is an electrical transformer used for the measurement of the linear displacement. The transformers have 3 solenoidal coils which are placed end to end around the tube. The primary is centre coil and the secondary are two outer coils. A ferromagnetic cylinder core is attached to the object whose position is to be measured and the slides along the axis of the tube. A counter part is used in the device for the measurement of the rotary displacement. The displacement is known as rotary variable differential transformation. In short cut it is written as RVDT.
Micrometer is also known as micrometer screw gauge. The micrometer includes a calibrated screw. The calibrated screw must be used for accurate measurements of the components. Mainly the components are used in the machining and mechanical engineering, metrology, mechanical trades. The instruments like digital calipers, dial, micrometer and Vernier are used in the form of calipers. The measuring object is placed in between the anvil and the spindle.
By turning the thimble or ratchet knob the spindle is moved upto the object is measured. To measure the diameter of the microscopic objects micrometer is used in microscope or in telescope.
Types of micrometer:
it is used to measure the blocks, shafts, spheres and wires.
It is used to measure the hole diameters.
It is used to measure the depth of steps and slots.
Special type of devices:
In every micrometer caliper it can be fitted with a specialized spindle and anvils for specific measuring tasks.
In the blade micrometer it has a matching set of tapered tips. It is used to measure the ring groove.
It consists of 3 anvil head on micrometer. It is used to measure the inner diameter of an object with accuracy.
In the ball micrometer we can observe the ball shape anvils. It consists of one ball anvil and one flat. They are used to measure the distance of the holes to the edge, wall thickness. They vary in application after tube micrometres. In that method they used to measure beside curved planes which are not tubes. The ball anvil may also not be able to fit into smaller tubes as simply as a tube micrometer. In this micrometer pair of balls are used when single tangential point contact is define on both sides.
These tools are used for inspection process. The precision and accuracy must be nearly half a micrometer. The repeatability is nearly a quarter micrometer.
These microscopes are mechanical numbers that roll over
The digital microscope is used as an encoder to sense the distance and displays the final result on a digital screen.
Limit micrometer consists of two spindles, two anvils and they are used like a snap gauge. During the time of inspection it passes through the first gap and then followed by the second gap. The gaps are reflects to the topmost and bottommost of the tolerance range.
The micrometer stops are fixed on the table of the milling machine, machine tool, bed way of a lathe machine, machine tools. It helps to operator to operate the table and carry this very accurately. To activate kick out mechanisms stops are used or limit switches to stop an automatic feed system.
Pitch diameter micrometer:
The pitch diameter micrometer have an identical set of thread designed tips for calculating the pitch diameter of the screw thread.
The tube micrometer must have a cylindrical anvil that is placed perpendicularly to the spindle. It is used to measure the thickness of the tubes.
V micrometers are outside micrometers and it consists of small v block for an anvil. By using this instrument we measure the circle diameter from three points equally spaced around it.
It consists of interchangeable anvils like spherical, flat, disk, spline, knife edge, point. To the universal micrometer it consists of a modular component. It allows the micrometer to function as a depth micrometer, outside micrometer and step micrometer.
The pressure gauge is also known as vacuum gauge. This device is used to measure the pressure as it acts as a pressure measurement device.
The profile gauge is also known as contour gauge. Mainly these type of gauges are used to record the cross sectional shape of a surface.
Applications of profile gauge:
- The profile gauge is used in wood working and metal working.
- In archaeological illustration the profile gauge is used to record the pots profile. So it is known as pottery gauge.
- But the pottery gauges are a pattern used in production pots in ceramics
- In architectural maintenance the profile gauge is used to file the shapes of decorative mouldings.
The radius gauge is also known as fillet gauge. This device is used to measure the radius of an object.
Behind the object it requires a light to measure the radius by using the radius gauge. The gauge is located on the edge to be tested, and id observed for any light leak between the edge and blade shows a mismatch that involves alteration.
Good set of gauges will deal with both concave and convex sectors. It permits for their request in difficult location.
Each and every leave has different radius. With the stainless steel material the leaves are manufactured and they are of two types. They are
- Internal radius gauge
- External radius gauge
The internal and external leaves are used to check the inner surface and outer surface radius.
Ring gauge is a cylindrical ring of a thermally stable material. It is used to check the outside diameter of a cylindrical object. The inside diameter is completed to gauge tolerance.
Ring gauges are used for calibration, checking or standards or setting of gauges. The ring gauges are manufactured with variety of tolerances.
The ring gauges are divided in to three types they are:
- GO ring gauge
- No ring Go gauge
- Master gauge
Go ring gauge:
Based on the fixed limit it provides a precision tool for the production comparative gauging. These gauges are manufactures with a fixed limit gauge value. The gauge limit valves are based on the plus (+) or minus (-) tolerances of the checked part.
The dimensions of a Go gauge are based on the maximum outer diameter tolerances of a cylinder or a bar.
The dimensions of a Go plug gauge are based on the minimum inner diameter tolerance of a hole.
The Go plug internal diameter gauge should be specified to a plus (+) gauge makers. The tolerances are from the minimum part tolerance.
The Go plug outer diameter gauge should be specified to a minus (-) gauge makers. The tolerances are from the maximum part tolerance.
No Go gauge:
Based on the fixed limit it provides a precision tool for the production comparative gauging. These gauges are manufactures with a fixed limit gauge value. The gauge limit valves are based on the maximum or minimum tolerances of the checked part.
The dimensions of a No Go Gauge are based on the minimum outer diameter tolerances of a cylinder or a bar.
The No Go ring gauge should be specified to a plus (+) gauge makers. The tolerances are from the minimum part tolerance.
Master Ring Gauge:
The setting ring gauges and master ring gauges are includes gauge blocks. And also setting discs or master discs and setting rings. Setting gauges are the types of the master gauges. These gauges are used to calibrate, optical comparators, set micrometers or other system related to gauging. For dimensional inspection in shops working gauges are used and sometimes checked against a master gauge.
Strain gauge is a device. It is used to measure the strain in an object. It is the regular kind of strain gauge and it includes an insulating flexible backup which maintains a metallic foil pattern. With the help of the adhesive the gauge is attached to the object. If the object is deformed then the foil is as deformed and it affecting its electrical resistance to variation. With the help of the wheat stone bridge the varied resistance is measured. It is associated to the strain by the quantity known as the gauge factor.
varied in resistance caused by the strain
resistance of the un-deformed gauge
For the metallic foil gauges the gauge factor must be over than 2. We obtain the value from the bridge:
BV = bridge excitation voltage
Stream gauge is also known as gauging station or stream gauge. The place used by the hydrologists or ecological scientists to screen and test the terrestrial forms of water.
A thermometer is also known as temperature gradient. Thermometer is a device used to measure the temperature by using various principles. Thermometer consists of two elements they are temperature sensors and converter. Temperature sensor: for example bulb present in the mercury in glass thermometer. During the process we can see changes occur in the temperature. Sometimes the plus converts the physical change to a numerical value. On the mercury in glass thermometer visible scale is placed to see the value.
Thermometer includes the operating principles like thermal expansion of liquids or thermal expansion of solids. And also it is related with temperature or change in the gas pressure on cooling or heating.
The infrared energy emitted by an object is measured by using the radiation type of thermometer. Without contact the temperature of an object is measured.
To control and regulate process the thermometer is used in the industry to study the condition of weather, scientific research and in medicine.
Types of thermometer:
- Rectal thermometer
- Temperature strip
- Resistance thermometer
- Reversing thermometer
- Silicon band gap temperature sensor
- Liquid crystal thermometer
- Mercury in glass thermometer
- Infrared thermometer
- Quartz thermometer
- Heat meter
- Gas thermometer
- Fiber optical thermometer
- Alcohol thermometer
- Beckmann differential thermometer
- Phosphor thermometer
- Galileo thermometer
- Indoor and outdoor thermometer
- Balco thermometer
- Coulomb blockade thermometer
- Bi metallic mechanical thermometer
- Breguets thermometer
Uses of thermometer:
- Thermometer is used to measure the temperature.
- In engineering applications and scientific research temperature sensors are used
- The temperature system must be either mechanical or electrical irregularly attached from the system which they control.
- To determine the icing condition during the cold weather the thermometers are used in roads.
- In climate control systems like heaters, water heaters, refrigerators, freezers and air conditioners the thermistors are used.
- Due to the limited measurement range the Galileo thermometer is used to measure the air temperature present indoor.
Thread pitch gauge
Thread pitch gauge is also known as pitch gauge or screw pitch gauge. It is used to measure the lead or pitch of a screw thread. The thread pitch gauge is used as a reference tool in defining the pitch of a thread that is on a screw or in a tapped hole. The instrument is not used as accuracy measuring instrument. So the device is used to measure the thread profile and rapidly categorize the thread by pitch and shape. By using this thread pitch is measured and calculated.
It is also called as marigraph or mareograph. Tide gauge is a device used to measure the sea level changing water condition. The sea level is comparative to datum. With the help of the sensors the water level height is recorded continuously with respect to height reference. The height location surface is near to the geoid.
From the bottom of the pipe the water must be entered into the device. With the help of the electronic sensor the height of the water level must be measure. The measure data must be sent to the system.
Types of gauges:
- High accuracy automatic tide gauge
- High resolution automatic tide gauge
- GSI tide gauge
- Kelvin tide gauge
- Fuess tide gauge
Vernier height gauge
It is one of the measuring devices used to determine the height of an object. Mainly we can see these types of tools in metrology or metal working to measure the vertical distance. On the tool there is a pointer used to measure the vertical distance of the object.
In the tool room the difference between the surface gauge and height gauge is used to measure the head. We can see only one scriber point in the screw gauge. Both are naturally used on the surface plate and they have a weighty base with a correctly smooth, flat underside.
Wire gauges are used to measure the bulky wire. The measurement is either done through cross section or diameter area wise. So from that measurement we can estimate the capacity of the wire to carry the current safely. And also we know the weight per unit of length and electrical resistance. It is applicable for the both non electrical wires and electrical wires. Actually they are essential to the electrical wiring and structural cable.
Types of wire gauge:
Wire gauges are divided into 2 groups. They are
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