Classification of Hydro Electric Power Plant

Hydro Electric Power Plants Are Classified According To Water Head Available They Are :

  • High head power plant
  • Medium head power plant
  • Low head power plant

High head power plant

The water operating head is more than 70 meters, at that instance the plant is known as high head power plant. The prime movers are used in the pelton wheel turbine.


Medium head power plant

The water operating head ranges from 15 meters to 70 meters. At that case the plant is known as medium head power plant. The prime movers are used in the Francis wheel turbine.

Low head power plant

The water operating head is less than 15 meters. At that case the plant is known as low head power plant. The prime movers are used in the Kaplan and Francis wheel turbine.

Hydro Electric Power Plant Turbine Advantages:

  • To the power plant water source is regularly available without break. To generate electricity fuel is not required. It is properly termed as white coal.
  • Through the turbine, the water is passed to do the work and to downstream the process. Its effectiveness remains exhaustive for cultivation of farms and reducing the dehydration problem.
  • Compared to the nuclear power station and thermal power station the running cost is very less in the hydroelectric power plant installation.
  • In case of thermal power plant we can see the cost of fuel along with the transportation cost of the fuel.
  • In the thermal power station there is no problem with the disposal of ash. In the system there is no problem with the polluting gases, and particulates are not released into the atmosphere.
  • We cannot find the green house effects in the hydroelectric power plant. But it causes the acid rains and emits Nitrogen into the atmosphere.
  • In case of nuclear and thermal power plant, the steam turbine is put on turning gear for nearly two days during the starting and ending.
  • The thought of the hydroelectric power plant is very simple and self-contained in the process.
  • Compare with the other power plants the reliability of the system must be higher. The life time of the modern equipment’s have high life expectancy and without causing any trouble they work for 50 years.
  • In case of the thermal power plant they work for 30 years.
  • Due to the relaxation of picking up and throwing off loads in the hydroelectric power plant can be used as the idyllic spinning inverse in a system mixed up of nuclear and hydro power plant.
  • At considerable range of loads modern hydro generator gives more efficiency.
  • Main advantage is that the efficiency of system must be improved.
  • Power plant receives more benefits from the flood control, irrigation, navigation, and afforestation and aqua culture.
  • For operation process it does not required high skilled labor. Condition of man power is also low.

Disadvantages of Hydroelectric power plant:

  • Initial cost of the hydroelectric power plant is high and comparatively the returns are in low rates.
  • The annual report importance of this capital cost is a large part of the annual cost of hydropower installations.
  • The development period of hydro projects is moderately large.
  • The gap between the groundwork and achievement of a project may spread from 10 years to 15 years.
  • Power generation is reliant on the capacity of water available, which may vary from year to year and season to season.
  • If the rainfall is in-time and satisfactory, only then the reasonable operation from the plant can be anticipated.
  • Such plants are often far away from the load center and require long transmission lines to deliver power.
  • The charges of transmission lines and losses in them are more.
  • Large hydroelectric plants disturb the bio network of the zone, along deforestation, extinguishing plants and relocating people.
  • Production of such plants is a limiting factor.
  • The stress is now extra on mini, small and micro hydroelectric power stations

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