Heat conduction is one of the three basic modes of thermal energy transport. Heat flows from higher temperature to lower temperature. Though it looks simple, heat transfer is quite complex phenomenon. There are three basic modes of heat transfer. This article provides an introduction to modes of heat conduction. Let’s take closer look at heat transfer and three main methods

Deformation can be referred to as change of shape. In reality, all objects are deformable. Deformation of solid materials has two basics such as change in shape and change in volume of an object by applying external forces. Thus deformation is used as equal to distribution. In this article, we shall discuss deformation of solids in terms of concepts of