Casting Defects And Applications


Defects in the casting process can be found due to the pattern and molding box equipment, cores, gating system, molding sand or molten metal. Some common defects are:

  • Mold shift:

When the top and bottom parts of the casting are mismatched this defect is occurs generally at the parting line of the casting.


Casting Defects -1

  • Swell:

Swell is an enlargement to the mold cavity that is caused by the molten metal pressure, finally results in   the localized and generalized enlargement of the casting.

  • Fins and flash:

These are thin projections to the metal that are not intended as a part of casting. This defect generally occurs at the parting line of the mold.

  • Sand wash:

Sand wash occurs at the gates as rough lumps over the casting surface.

  • Shrinkage:

Shrinkage is a crack or breakage that occurs in a casting, on the work piece surface. This problem is faced due to un equal contraction in the process of metal contraction.

Casting Defects -2

  • Hot tear:

Metal irregular solidification results in this casting defect that is an internal or external ragged discontinuity in the casting of the metals.

Casting Defects -3

  • Sand blow (blow hole):

Casting Defects -5

This is a depression over the work piece surface while casting due to the irregular molten metal filling into the mold.

  • Slag holes (honey combing):

Slag holes are generally seen on the upper surface of the work piece that is mostly occurred at the surface of the casting.

  • Scabs:

These are the patches that are left over the work piece surface after removal of the casting mold.

  • Cold shut and misruns:

Cols shut and misruns are caused in the casting process due to the incomplete filling of the molten insufficient metal or material.

Casting Defects -4

  • Run outs and bust outs:

These occur unexpectedly in the process of casting that permits metal drainage from the cavity. This results in incomplete formation of the required casting object.


Transport sector equipment and heavy machinery are pre-dominant consumers of these castings:

  • In transportation shipping, railways, aerospace vehicles and automobile vehicles etc., in all these sectors most of the major components are manufactured by casting process.
  • In heavy equipment like construction and mining, farming will use casting as their basic process in manufacturing.
  • Machine tools that are used in manufacturing processes as forging, machining, plastic molding, forming are manufactured by casting.
  • Plant machinery as chemical, petroleum, paper, sugar, thermal plants; opts this casting process as it is an easy way and is inexpensive when compared to other processes.
  • Defense vehicles, munitions, storage and other supportive equipment are the applications of casting.
  • Electrical Machines as generators, motors, pumps, compressors are manufactured by this manufacturing process.
  • Pipes, joints, valves and other fittings in municipal castings are applications of castings.
  • House hold appliances that are related to kitchen, gardening, furnishing and fitting equipment come under the applications of this process.
  • Idols, sculptors, lamp stands, other decorative items are prepared by the mold materials using casting.

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